Communities in Western and Central Africa face a real threat of avian influenza (AI). UNICEF contracted the Academy for Educational Development (AED) to carry out community-based participatory action research (PAR) on AI, including how communities identify problems and determine appropriate courses of action. In October-November 2006 AED implemented PAR in six communities-- one urban/periurban community and one rural community in three locations: Burkina Faso plus Lagos State and Kano State in Nigeria. The results of the PAR confirm two fundamental approaches that AED has repeatedly found to be important: First, communications programs must be grounded in the local social, economic, and cultural context. Second, programs must use a mix of mass media and interpersonal channels.